These may very well be some of the most beautifully designed upper paleolithic tools to appear in Eurasia. They are gigantic and paper thin and incredibly well executed. This photo of course is not of a real artifact, but of a masterfully knapped modern reproduction (it’s actually better than any artifact I’ve seen). According to Professor Mike Bisson, laurel leaves likely served only ceremonial purpose.
Biology graduate student Jennifer Klunk examines 1500-year-old teeth, from which scientists were able to extract Justinian plague DNA fragments. Image: JD Howell
An international team of scientists has discovered that two of the world’s most devastating plagues – the plague of Justinian and the Black Death, each responsible for killing as many as half the people in Europe—were caused by distinct strains of the same pathogen, one that faded out on its own, the other leading to worldwide spread and re-emergence in the late 1800s.
These findings suggest a new strain of plague could emerge again in humans in the future.
“The research is both fascinating and perplexing, it generates new questions which need to be explored, for example why did this pandemic, which killed somewhere between 50 and 100 million people die out?” questions Hendrik Poinar, associate professor and director of the McMaster Ancient DNA Centre and an investigator with the Michael G. DeGroote Institute for Infectious Disease Research.
The findings are dramatic because little has been known about the origins or cause of the Justinian Plague– which helped bring an end to the Roman Empire – and its relationship to the Black Death, some 800 years later.
Okay, so almost everyone knows Idina Menzel because of ‘Frozen’ or from her role as Elphaba in ‘Wicked’
Everyone, this is Kerry Ellis. She’s a west end performer, who’s also played Elphaba in Wicked. This is a rendition of her singing ‘Defying Gravity’ produced by Mother.Fucking.Brian May. Yes. Brian May from Queen.
I seriously recommend you watch it because it’s the Defying Gravity we all know and love, but with a rock sounding element similar to the sound of Queen.
The mineral component of bone is comprised mostly of the calcium phosphate mineral hydroxyapatite which is embedded in the organic component type I collagen. When bone is exposed to a mildly acid environment the mineral component leaches out leaving only the pliable organic component. Vinegar is safe to use and does not destroy the protein scaffolding that gives bone it’s characteristic shape. This is a human fibula tied in a knot.